git-assembler: update git branches using high-level instructions

git-assembler can perform automatic merge and rebase operations following a simple declarative script. Like “make”, for branches.

It can be used to follow remote branches (such as pull requests) conveniently, test multiple patches together, work on interdependent feature branches more easily, and so on…


Latest stable releases:

NEWS:Summary of changes between releases.

All the relevant source/developer information including release notifications can be found on GitLab:


When working with git it’s often convenient/necessary to split development into separate branches, where each branch contains a logically independent set of changes. As time progresses though it’s not uncommon to work on several feature and bugfix branches at the same time, often long-lived, and with dependent or downright conflicting changes.

Managing such changes, keeping them separate and evolving them can become tedious and time consuming.

As an example, imagine working on a new feature on its own dedicated branch until a critical API is found to be missing, or broken. Policy dictates that such change needs a separate fix, so you split-off development into a dedicated branch and submit the change for testing. Meanwhile you go back to the feature branch, merge the fix, and continue. But the fix turns out to be incomplete a few days later, so you go back, commit, switch back and merge. At least once or twice more.

If that sounds familiar, and you’d like some automation, then a tool such as topgit or git-assembler might fit the bill. The major difference between the two is that topgit enforces a minimal workflow to preserve development history, while git-assembler just gives you the tools which could be used to implement such workflow, but enforces absolutely nothing.


Basic setup

You’ll need Python 3 and a recent version of Git.

Copy git-assembler into $PATH:

git clone
cd git-assembler/
sudo cp git-assembler /usr/local/bin

Configure git:

git config --global assembler

git-assembler can now be invoked as:

git as

Without any argument, git as is a no-op and will show the current assembly status graph as defined from the .git/assembly file.

Automating simple merges

Scenario: You have a “fixes” branch which is where production bugs get fixed. You want to merge all “fixes” back to “master” unconditionally.

Create a test repository:

# a repository with a master branch
git init
touch file
git add file
git commit
# create a "fixes" branch with a new commit
git checkout -b fixes
echo "test" > file
git commit -a

Create .git/assembly with the following content:

merge master fixes

You can run git as --dry-run to display what git-assembler will do to update the repository:

$ git as --dry-run
git-assembler: merging fixes into master

To show the current status in a graph, run git as with no flags:

$ git as

master” is shown followed with an indented list of branches to be merged (in this case only “fixes”). “master” is also shown in bold, meaning that it’s out of date. “fixes” is displayed in green to indicate that it contains updated content. The leading “>” indicates that it’s also the current branch.

To actually perform the merge use the --assemble/-a flag explicitly:

$ git as --assemble --verbose
git-assembler: merging fixes into master
git-assembler: restoring initial branch fixes

Following remote branches

Scenario: You’re following a project “coolthing” with multiple forks. There are two PRs (“feature” from “user1” and “bugfixes” from “user2”) that interest you and want to always merge both into your own fork.

Clone the original project:

git clone
cd coolthing/

Add the two PRs, by adding the two remotes and fetching the respective branches:

git remote add user1 ""
git fetch user1 feature
git remote add user2 ""
git fetch user2 bugfixes

Any valid ref name is allowed in .git/assembly, so we can directly reference them for any merge operation:

merge master origin/master
merge master user1/feature
merge master user2/bugfixes

Display the current status:

$ git as

In this graph we see “master” is the current branch and is out-of-date (shown in bold). “master” has three branches which are merged into it. “origin/master” is in sync (we just cloned from it), but “user1/feature” and “user2/bugfixes” (shown in green) have more recent commits that need to be merged.

Use git as --dry-run (or -n in short) to see that broken down:

$ git as -n
git-assembler: merging user1/feature into master
git-assembler: merging user2/bugfixes into master

To perform the merges use git as -a.

To update your repository in the future you just need to fetch all remotes and then call git as -a. It’s usually convenient to display the current status with git as just prior to assembling:

# update from all sources
git fetch --all
# inspect the status
git as
# perform updates
git as -a

It’s useless to call git pull in this scenario since git-assembler will do the same while also showing a more comprehensive repository status before performing the required merges. It isn’t forbidden though, and combining git pull with git as works just as well (it just takes more commands).

Rebasing local branches

Scenario: You’re working on two independent feature branches (“feature1” and “feature2”) and want to keep both always rebased on “master” during development.

Create the following .git/assembly:

rebase feature1 master
rebase feature2 master

The respective graph:

$ git as
feature1 <- master
feature2 <- master

The left arrow indicates that “feature1” is based on top of “master”.

Whenever master is updated (via git pull, for example), “master” will turn green to indicate new content, while both “feature1” and “feature2” become bold to indicate that they will be updated.

Running git as will rebase both in one shot, irregardless of the current branch:

$ git as -v
git-assembler: rebasing feature1 onto master
git-assembler: rebasing feature2 onto master

Testing two branches together

Scenario: You’re working on branch “feature”, but require “bugfix” for testing. You want to keep them logically separated, but still perform tests easily.

We can define a staging branch “test” with the following .git/assembly:

stage test feature
merge test bugfix

A stage branch is recreated from scratch whenever it’s base or any of its merged branches is updated.

Resulting graph:

$ git as
test <= feature

The left double arrow indicates that “test” is staged on top of “feature”. As seen before, it’s followed by a list of indented branches to merge: “bugfix”.

Whenever either “bugfix” or “feature” is updated, “test” is deleted and recreated first by branching off “feature” and then merging “bugfix”:

$ git as -av
git-assembler: erasing existing branch test
git-assembler: creating branch test from feature
git-assembler: merging bugfix into test

Staging branches can be helpful also to ensure that branches merge cleanly.

Invocation and usage

Command line

git-assembler is best used with a short git alias (see Basic setup and Git configuration for extra details).

The suggested shorthand git as needs to be run within a git repository. The primary location of the configuration file is .git/assembly. Such file contains instructions on how to update any defined branches by performing merge or rebase operations. A complete list of commands is available in Assembly file reference.

By default, without any arguments, git-assembler reads the assembly file and displays a graph representation of the defined branches without performing any action:

$ cat .git/assembly
merge master test
$ git as

The graph layout is documented in Assembly graph reference.

The --dry-run/-n flag displays instead a flattened list of operations to be performed, in order, on the current repository:

$ git as --dry-run
git-assembler: merging test into master

To actually perform the operations the --assemble/-a flag is always required. This is true also for the --create or --recreate flags. This can be seen in conjunction with --dry-run:

$ cat .git/assembly
base new master
merge new bugfix
$ git as --dry-run
git-assembler: branch new needs creation from master
$ git as --dry-run --create
git-assembler: creating branch new from master
git-assembler: merging bugfix into new

By default all defined branches are either displayed or updated. A list of explicit targets can be given on the command line:

$ cat .git/assembly
merge branch1 a b
merge branch2 c
$ git as
$ git as branch2
$ git as -av branch2
git-assembler: merging c into branch2

When working on large projects the list of default targets can be overridden in the assembly file. Non-existent branches are ignored unless they are depended-on by one of the requested targets. Branches which exist, but are not defined, are also ignored.

Handling conflicts

There’s no magic introduced by git-assembler involving conflicts.

When conflicts arise in a merge operation git-assembler will drop you into the branch which is being merged onto. Assuming a simple merge conflict:

$ cat .git/assembly
merge master branch1
$ git as -av
git-assembler: merging branch1 into master
Auto-merging test
CONFLICT (content): Merge conflict in test
Recorded preimage for 'test'
Automatic merge failed; fix conflicts and then commit the result.
U       test
git-assembler: error while merging branch1 into master
git-assembler: stopping at branch master, fix/commit then re-run git-assembler

Use git add/commit as usual to resolve the conflict, or git merge --abort to cancel the merge. Aborting the merge can be useful, for example, to invoke a different merge strategy or to remove the offending rule and disregard the merge completely.

As soon as the merge is resolved or aborted, state is instantly reflected into git as:

# fix the merge
$ git commit
$ git as -av
git-assembler: already up to date

Of course, if the merge is aborted but the merge rule is not removed, git as will simply try again on the next invocation.

Additional information is displayed when two or more branches are involved in the current run:

$ cat .git/assembly
merge master branch1
merge branch1 branch2
$ git as
$ git as -av
git-assembler: merging branch2 into branch1
Auto-merging test
CONFLICT (content): Merge conflict in test
Recorded preimage for 'test'
Automatic merge failed; fix conflicts and then commit the result.
U       test
git-assembler: error while merging branch2 into branch1
git-assembler: stopping at branch branch1, fix/commit then re-run git-assembler

master” will be adorned in the graph to indicate that it was the initial branch when git as was started (note the * after the name), while the current branch you’re now on is “branch1”:

$ git as

After fixing the merge, running git as -av a second time will continue and restore the initial branch:

# fix conflict
$ git commit
$ git as -av
git-assembler: merging branch1 into master
git-assembler: restoring initial branch master

Conflicts arising during a rebase operation drop you on the branch which is being rebased and work exactly the same: just fix the conflict and either rebase --continue or rebase --abort as you normally would.

The situation gets more complex when stage (and, to a lesser extent, base) is involved somewhere in the graph.

Since staging branches will be deleted and re-created at every update, the same merge conflicts will keep repeating unless the conflict is handled within the branch being merged itself, which is not always desired.

In these situations git-rerere is required (see Git configuration).

The basic gist of rerere is that, once enabled, will record how the conflict was resolved and apply the same solution whenever it happens again. This allows the same merge operation to repeat successfully.

git as applies merges in a deterministic order (the declaration order) in order to let you control and maximize the chances of a successful and reproducible resolution. git as will additionally auto-commit a successful rerere solution so that the operation can continue without manual intervention in most cases.

git rerere might lead to surprising (and sometimes broken) results during conflict resolution, which is the main reason it’s not enabled by default. Reading rereres own documentation and experimenting on a toy repository is highly encouraged before starting to use staging branches.

General usage advice

The .git/assembly file is not set in stone. Change and adapt your rules to whatever makes you work better. I adapt my rules according to what branches I’m working on and remove them when I’m done.

Also, just because you can rebase everything, it doesn’t mean you should. Pushed-state aside, you can still work with plain merges and rebase just once for cleanup. Or mix the two methods by intervening manually.

In contrast to other similar tools, git-assembler is stateless and doesn’t care what you do or did to get to the current repository state.

Not all branch layouts that can be defined with git-assembler make sense (or work at all).

Advanced topics

Testing branches: continuous integration

Scenario: You have a “feature” branch and you want to keep an ephemeral branch “test” where changes from both mainline and the feature branch are continuously merged. Using stage would work, but cause the work tree to change and rebuild too frequently. You need something more efficient.

A simple and perfectly valid approach would be to just create a throw-away branch and use merge:

git checkout -b test master


merge test master feature

You can more conveniently mark that “test” can be bootstrapped from “master” using the base command:

base test master
merge test master feature

The graph shows:

$ git as
test .. master

The “..” notation indicates that “test” is initially based off “master”. Also, the first time git as is run, “test” is highlighted in red to indicate that the branch doesn’t exist. “base” branches are not initialized unless --create is given on the command line:

$ git as -av
git-assembler: branch test needs creation from master
$ git as -avc
git-assembler: creating branch test from master
git-assembler: merging master into test
git-assembler: merging feature into test
git-assembler: restoring initial branch master

Any subsequent update would simply perform the merge operations as needed. But, because “base” branches are intended to be ephemeral, they can also be explicitly re-initialized to discard any branch history and start anew by using --recreate:

$ git as -av --recreate
git-assembler: erasing existing branch test
git-assembler: creating branch test from master
git-assembler: merging master into test
git-assembler: merging feature into test
git-assembler: restoring initial branch master

Base branches behave otherwise like a normal branch: if you want to update from the starting branch you have to do so explicitly, as done above.

Feature and bugfix: a rebase approach

Scenario: You’re working on branch “feature”, but require “bugfix” to continue development, as well as recent changes from “master” (“bugfix” is too old, and is still in development). You want to keep “feature“‘s history clean during development, before it’s being pushed.

We can use an intermediate branch with both master and “bugfix” applied. Then rebase our “feature” branch on top of it:

base temp master
merge temp master
merge temp bugfix
rebase feature temp

The resulting graph:

feature <- [temp]
temp .. master

This is efficient, but what if “bugfix” inadvertently gets rebased? Bootstrap the “temp” branch again, using git as -a --recreate.

If “bugfix” happens to rebase frequently then a staging branch can get more verbose (requiring rerere to be active), but will keep on working:

stage temp master
merge temp bugfix
rebase feature temp

The graph is similar:

feature <- [temp]
temp <= master

Once bugfix is applied, we can just discard our temporary branch and rebase on “master”.

Assembly graph reference


The graph takes the following core structure:

branch bases

The branch if followed on the right with a list of the base branches (with annotations) and an indented list of dependencies (branches) to merge.

Such structure can nest:

  branch <- base .. base

Bases will be split off into a separate root when they also contain dependencies that cannot be represented compactly. The branch is adorned with [brackets] when this happens to indicate an indirect node:

branch <- [base]

Branches are highlighted with the following:

Red:Branch is missing or non-existent
Bold:Branch needs to be updated
Green:Branch contains updated content

Branches can be adorned with:

>branch:Branch is the current branch
branch*:Branch was the initial branch when git-assembler was called and interrupted before finishing



merge are branches which get merged into branch whenever they’re newer, and can be added using the merge command. The list of merged branches follows the final merge order. branch is a regular branch, unless followed by other symbols.

branch <- base

branch is rebased on top of base when base is updated. It is generated by the rebase command.

branch .. base

branch can be bootstrapped or re-created on top of base. Generated by the base command.

branch <= base

branch is deleted and re-created on top of base whenever either base or merge is newer. Generated by the stage command.

master <- [branch]

[branch] refers to a branch defined elsewhere in the graph.

Assembly file reference


The assembly file is searched in the following order:


.git/assembly is local and overrides a possibly versioned .gitassembly. The location can be overridden on the command line through the --config flag.


Empty lines and lines starting with “#” are ignored. Leading and trailing whitespace is also ignored, allowing both commands and comments to be indented. Each command starts on it’s own line.

Commands that define a branch type (base, stage, rebase) cannot be specified more than once per target. Ordering is only relevant for the merge command.



Syntax:target branch [branch...]
Description:Set the default target branch (or branches) to operate on when no explicit branch is given on the command line. When no target is specified, all defined branches are checked for updates. Use --all on the command line to override the default target. target can be specified only once.


Syntax:base branch-name base-name
Description:Define branch-name to be a “regular” branch which can be optionally bootstrapped from base-name. If branch-name doesn’t exist and --create is specified on the command line then branch-name is forked off base-name. When --recreate is given, branch-name is deleted and recreated, discarding any existing commit.


Syntax:stage branch-name base-name
Description:Define branch-name to be a “staging” branch which is deleted and recreated by forking off base-name every time any of its dependencies (base or merged branches) are updated.


Syntax:rebase branch-name base-name
Description:Define branch-name to be a “rebased” branch. Rebase branch-name on top of base-name every time base-name is updated.


Syntax:merge target branch [branch...]
Description:Merge branch into target every time branch is updated. Multiple branches to merge can be given on the same command. merge can be repeated to specify more branches on multiple lines. The merge order follows the declaration order.

Editor support

git-assembler-mode is an Emacs major-mode to edit assembly files. Available through Melpa.

Git configuration

Once git-assembler is installed, it can be called as a regular git sub-command:

git assembler

We recommend to define a shorter global alias:

git config --global assembler

which allows to use git-assembler using just:

git as

Since git-assembler can be instructed to perform the same merge and rebase operations over and over, it is recommended to enable rerere in each repository where git-assembler is being used:

# enable in the current repository only
git config rerere.enable true
# or enable for all repositories
git config --global rerere.enable true

Good familiarity with git-rerere is recommended.

Ensure the git reflog (core.logAllRefUpdates) has not been disabled. It is essential for the correct operation of non-trivial rebase operations.